Puffer fish (Tetraodontidae; puffer fishes), is the collective name for fish of the family Pufferidae of teleost, commonly known as puffer fish. (Note: The puffer fish name is wrong, but it is widely used. Puffer fish can also be referred to as a freshwater mammal.)

Pufferfish is a bottom fish in warm temperate and tropical coastal waters. It lives in the middle and lower layers of the ocean. A few species enter freshwater rivers. When encountering external dangers, the whole body floats to the surface in a spherical shape, and at the same time, the small spines on the skin stand up. , for self-defense. The common ones are Takifugu rubripes, T. fasciatus, Lagocephalus inermis, Chelonodon patoca, Aronthron nigropunctatus, etc.

Puffer fish, commonly known as “puffer fish”, is a collective name for fish in the bony fish class Pufferidae. The body of a pufferfish is cylindrical and has air sacs, which will inhale and inflate when encountering danger. The general body length is 25-35 cm! The upper and lower jaws are fused with the teeth to form 4 large dental plates, 1 dorsal fin, and no pelvic fin. Without scales or with small spines. The whole body is oval, with a blunt front and a tapering tail. Kiss short, blunt; Mouth small, terminal, transversely split. The upper and lower jaws each have two plate-shaped incisors, with a prominent midline. The lips are well developed, and the ends of the lower lip curve upward on the outside of the upper lip. The eyes are small, the gill opening is small, and it is an arc-shaped slit, located in front of the pectoral fins, and the body surface is densely covered with small spines. The dorsal fin is located very posteriorly, opposite to the anal fin; no pelvic fin; the rear end of the caudal fin is truncated. The back of the body is grayish-brown, the sides of the body are slightly yellowish brown, and the ventral surface is white; the markings on the back and side of the body vary with the species. There are many species, most of which live in the sea, but they can also be found in fresh water and the confluence of sea and fresh water. They blow water and air in the water, causing the sand to fly up, and then prey on the creatures hiding in the sand. The teeth and jaws are strong enough to crush extremely hard shells.

Pufferfish is extremely rich in resources in China. There are 54 species produced along the coast of China, with an annual output of about 3 to 4 million tons. The coastal areas can be caught almost all year round. In the Yangtze River and Pearl River, flood seasons occur between spring and summer, and they are one of the main fishery targets along the coast and in the middle and lower reaches of the river. In China, there are more than 30 species of puffers living along the coast from Liaoning to Guangdong, among which the dark puffer enters the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Pearl River, and other water systems.

Life habits of Pufferfish

Life habits of Pufferfish
Life habits of Pufferfish

In March every year, it swims from the open sea to the brackish water area of the river estuary to lay eggs. Only puffer (Fugu obscurus; English name: Obscure puffer) goes upriver in groups and enters fresh water, and lays eggs in rivers from May to June; the number of brood eggs is generally between 40,000 and 50,000. In the autumn, the water temperature drops, and the river begins to fall. Like other species, it swims to the deep sea area, and returns to the deep sea area to survive the winter in early December. The juvenile fish born in the same year live in rivers or lakes connected to the river, and return to the sea in the spring of the following year. They grow up in the sea until they reach sexual maturity and then enter the river to lay eggs. Pufferfish that enter the River lay eggs in the middle reaches of the River or in Lake from April to June.

feeding habits of Pufferfish

The feeding habits of pufferfish are assorted; take fish, shrimp, crab, shellfish as food, also eat blade and filamentous algae of insect larvae, cladocera, copepods and higher plants. Feeds little during reproductive migration.

self defense of Pufferfish


Pufferfish have a round body and rely mainly on their pectoral fins for propulsion. Although such a body can rotate flexibly, its speed is not fast, making it an easy target to hunt. Therefore, pufferfish have evolved a self-defense mechanism that is very different from that of ordinary fish. When the pufferfish is threatened, it can quickly inhale water or air into its extremely elastic stomach, and expand to several times its size in a short period of time, scaring away predators. Spiny pufferfish in the spinyfish family even have spines that stand up all over the body when they inflate, making it difficult for predators to swallow.

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