As the saying goes: A cow gives birth to a cow, and there are five cows in three years. So if you want to have five cows in three years, you must have one calf per year for a cow.
1. It is better for cows to give birth to one calf per litter.
The price of calves continues to rise due to the influence of multiple factors. In this case, farmers are looking for ways to improve the reproductive rate of cows. Therefore, the technology of multiple calves per litter is popular among farmers. It is widely circulated. Under normal circumstances, a cow will give birth to one calf per litter. In rare cases, twins will be born . Technically speaking, it is not difficult to give birth to multiple calves. The cow only needs to be injected with ovulation-stimulating drugs to cause superovulation. Then artificial insemination can be carried out at the appropriate tim
However, it is not that the more calves produced, the higher the benefits. The key lies in the quality of the calves and the useful life of the cows. If you force them to have multiple calves in one litter, many problems will arise:
1. Cow pregnancy risk.
The calf weight of some large beef cattle breeds is larger at birth. For example, the calf weight of Charolais cattle can reach more than 100 kilograms. Not to mention multiple calves in one litter, even one calf in one litter is prone to various problems.
First, calves that are too large or have too many abdominal pressures and defecation can easily cause prolapse of the birth canal and digestive problems.
Second, it is particularly easy to cause premature birth, miscarriage and other problems during pregnancy .
Third, dystocia is particularly prone to occur during childbirth , and sometimes even the big cow may not be able to survive.
2. Calves are weak and sickly.
Cows with multiple calves in one litter are definitely not as strong as those with one calf. If not cared for properly, problems such as pneumonia or slow growth may occur . In contrast, farmers need to put in more energy. Large-scale breeding farms can provide adequate hardware facilities, but they do not have much energy to take care of calves with multiple calves. Small and medium-sized farmers have enough energy to take care of calves with multiple calves per litter, but often the hardware facilities are not up to standard, the cowshed environment is dirty, the humidity is high, the temperature is uncomfortable, and the disinfection is not up to standard, etc., the calves may die.
3. The mother’s milk is insufficient.
The lactation capacity of most beef cattle breeds is not very strong. Breastfeeding one cow is enough, but suckling two calves will cause a certain amount of pressure. If the calves do not eat enough, their growth and resistance will be affected, which will easily lead to stiff cows. Once they become stiff, neither cow may gain weight as quickly as the healthy cow.
Therefore, as long as the cows can produce one calf per year, it is ideal.
2. The key to a cow giving birth to one baby a year.
If you want a cow to gives birth to one baby a year, you need to do the following four things:
first, the cow’s afterbirth can be discharged smoothly;
second, if the cow has inflammation after giving birth, , timely anti-inflammation;
third, the cow needs to be supplemented with sufficient nutrients to meet its nutritional needs, such as providing the cow with more children and more blessings;
3. The age of cows at first mating should not be too early.
When cows reach sexual maturity, although their reproductive organs have been fully developed and have normal reproductive capabilities, their body growth has not yet been fully developed, so they are not suitable for breeding.
Breeding a cow too early will affect its own health, growth and development. The resulting calves will be weak, have a small weight after birth, and are difficult to raise, and the milk production of the cow will be affected after giving birth. Correctly grasping the first mating age of cows is of great significance to improving the quality of the herd, giving full play to their productivity and increasing their reproductive rate.
The age of a cow at first mating should be determined according to the breed of the cow and the specific growth and development conditions. It is generally later than sexual maturity. The weight at first mating should be about 70% of its adult weight. If the age has reached but the weight has not reached the age of first mating, it should be postponed.
4. Identification of Cows in Estrus and Breeding Timing:
Timely detect cows in estrus and grasp the best breeding time to prevent missed or mismatched breeding, which helps to increase the conception rate of cows.
In the early stage of estrus , the cow appears uneasy, often moos, loses appetite, and keeps wandering. The water gate is swollen and red, and egg white-like mucus is exuded. It is too early for breeding at this time. In the middle stage of estrus, the cow’s hind limbs open and begin to
accept the climb. The water gate is obviously swollen. The cow becomes shiny and the mucus becomes thicker, and it is best for breeding after 10 to 12 hours; at
the end of estrus , the cow gradually becomes quiet, the redness and swelling of the water gate basically disappear and wrinkles appear, the mucus decreases and becomes turbid, and the cow is suitable for breeding at this time; When the redness, swelling and mucus of the cow’s water gate completely disappear, and the bull refuses to climb across it, it proves that the cow has passed its estrus period and has missed the best breeding opportunity.
Experienced breeders can determine the best breeding time through rectal examination. The follicles of the cow begin to increase in early estrus, the follicles in mid-estrus increase significantly, and the follicles in late estrus increase significantly and feel like ripe grapes. The pregnancy rate of breeding at this time is highest . If the estrus time of a cow cannot be accurately determined, a multiple-breeding method can be used, that is, the cow will be bred when it is climbing, and then re-bred 8 to 12 hours after breeding to increase the pregnancy rate.
5. Key points of feeding and management of cows during pregnancy. The quality of calves is closely related to the feeding and management of
Cows during pregnancy . Feeding and management of cows should be strengthened after breeding and conception. At this time, it is necessary to grasp the nutritional needs of the cow at each stage and provide diets with different nutritional levels.
1. Strengthen feeding and management.
Good or bad feeding and management has a great impact on the reproduction rate of cows. Corresponding feeding and management plans need to be formulated according to the specific conditions of cows. Feeding plan: The cow should not be too fat and should be 80% fat. If the cow is too fat, the amount of concentrated feed should be appropriately reduced. If the cow is in poor condition, the amount of concentrated feed should be appropriately increased. At the same time, various minerals, trace elements and Vitamin intake.
Management plan: Do a good job in epidemic prevention and deworming to reduce the occurrence of various diseases; strengthen pen sanitation and disinfection to create a comfortable environment for cow production; appropriately increase the amount of exercise, sunbathing time and frequency of body brushing of cows , to improve the body resistance and physiological functions of cows.
2. Do a good job in postpartum care.
Cows should take good care after giving birth to reduce the occurrence of diseases such as retained placenta and metritis. For cows with dystocia, retained placenta and other symptoms, symptomatic treatment should be carried out promptly to minimize the harm.
3. Premature weaning of calves:
Premature weaning of calves can enable the cows to enter the next reproductive cycle.
4. Select high-yielding beef cattle breeds.
Compared with domestic cattle breeds, the reproductive performance of imported beef cattle breeds is often inferior, making it difficult to meet the requirement of one litter per year. However, considering the growth, feed-to-meat ratio, meat yield and other production performance of the calves, we had to choose to introduce beef breeds as cows. Considering the reproductive performance of the cow and the production performance of the calf, the 2nd to 3rd generation hybrid cows are the best. Currently, the commonly bred cross-breed beef breeds include Simmental, Charolais, Limousin and Angus cattle. Among them, Simmental cattle have the best reproductive performance, followed by Limousin and Angus cattle. In short, Charolais cattle have the worst reproductive performance.
5. Increase the amount of exercise and light time.
When cows enter the middle and late stages of pregnancy, they need to appropriately increase the amount of exercise and light time. This is very helpful to improve the cow’s physical condition and reduce the rate of dystocia. In addition, cows need to keep the barn quiet, clean, well ventilated, and at a suitable temperature during pregnancy, which can improve calf quality to varying degrees.